White Paper

Setting the Course for Talent Development in Metro Orlando

When it comes to talent, the good news for the Metro Orlando area is that we are well-positioned in the race for twenty-first century competitiveness in an increasingly global, knowledge-work focused economy. The not-so-good news: none of our competitor regions are standing still or waiting for Metro Orlando to catch up, and with as many territorial assets and advantages as Central Florida has to offer, the places we compete against are equally well-endowed and have earned a reputation as hubs for innovation, talent and growth. Central Florida can also lay claim to each of these, but the locations around the globe competing for investment, growth and prosperity also have a running head start in this race, and have no interest in ceding share of the market to us.

This should not be seen as a limiting factor for Metro Orlando, because our region is just beginning to hit its stride with the right combination of high-tech, life sciences, engineering and creative ventures and talent, supported by an ecosystem that fosters innovation and collaboration with education, economic development, workforce and business partnerships. Through deliberate and focused investment in these partnerships, and an authentic accounting of what has been accomplished and where we are headed as a region, we can tell the Metro Orlando story with a very optimistic view of the future and a proud sense of the present state of our region.

So, where are we today? And how important will the role of talent development be in the context of economic development and future growth?

This white paper will provide an outline of the current state for talent and competitiveness, the near-term future and a longer term look at the potential of the Metro Orlando region through the following focal areas:

  1. Voice of the Customer – Business and EDC Investor Perspectives
  2. Talent Supply Chain – Metro Orlando’s Talent Ecosystem
  3. Attraction and Retention – Metro Orlando as a Talent Magnet
  4. Bringing it all Together – Central Florida’s Places and Spaces

In addition, it is important to acknowledge the so-called “megatrends”[1] that will have increasing levels of importance over the next 10-plus years, such as:

  1. Health and life sciences – an aging population, medical capability and longer life expectancy
  2. Global connectedness  – communication, governance, trade and access to capital
  3. Accelerated technology development – beyond computing and into all aspects of our lives
  4. Environmental sustainability – resource scarcity and competition, energy and water
  5. Social changes – individualism versus collectivism, society cultures, values and norms
  6. Urbanization – population growth will be disproportionately greater in global urban centers
  7. Security – from cyber-security to protection of personal and business assets

This list is not all-inclusive, and there are multiple published perspectives on what exactly constitutes a megatrend.[2] Each of the points listed above has a direct implication for the partnership between business, education, economic development and communities, whether they are thinking from a city view or looking at competitive factors as regions or “super regions.” Metro Orlando EDC and its existing partners currently represent a regional view, and through collaboration with the state’s university system, key corporate partners, and public-private partnerships it will be well-positioned to compete in a “super-regional” or “megapolitan” context, such as the one proposed by Richard Florida that links Central Florida and Tampa Bay.[3] In this context, domestically Orlando and Tampa (and the surrounding economic corridor) would compete against Minneapolis-St. Paul (Minn.), the Capital Beltway (D.C. and surroundings), the Greater Boston (Mass.) region, and Dallas-Fort Worth (Tex.).

According to Cambridge Systematics, the success of this “super-region” is predicated upon collaboration across the entire central part of Florida in economic diversification, connectivity, regional cooperation, and quality growth. Each of the partner metro areas will have to compete based on location, resources, communities and available talent. By working collaboratively, or in some cases in the spirit of “co-opetition” (cooperative competition), each will be able to contribute to the super-region’s sustainability, connectivity, and high-skilled talent as well as the necessary ecosystem of education, business, research and development, innovation and talent development.

To the point of talent development, Metro Orlando EDC can play a linchpin role in helping its business partners and investors assess the current needs and gaps in the workforce, while at the same time taking the long view for those emerging skills that will be increasingly vital, not only for competitiveness but, more critically, for relevance in the not-so-distant future. Knowing that the nature of knowledge work is that it is no longer location-dependent, people who plan to remain relevant and employed in the future will have to possess these skills[4], at a minimum:

  1. Problem solving and decision making
  2. Creative and critical thinking
  3. Collaboration, communication and negotiation
  4. Information evaluation – find, select, structure, sense-making
  5. Intellectual curiosity and exploration

To put a finer point on these new skill requirements, “the best employers the world over will be looking for the most competent, most creative, and most innovative people on the face of the earth and will be willing to pay top dollar for their services – not just for top professional managers but up and down the workforce.”[5]

In a recent report spearheaded by the Florida Council of 100[6], the talent availability challenges are enumerated for Florida, with a strong emphasis on the importance of education as well as tighter alignment of economic development and talent development needs. The report introduces the term “talent supply chain” and defines it as follows:

“Talent Supply Chain: A system of resources and infrastructure that prepares people, on a lifelong basis, to advance the needs of enterprises of all scales, sizes and sectors. Like other supply chains, excellence is achieved through customer satisfaction, on-time delivery, reliability, foresight and seamless coordination and process improvement among and between all participants in the chain. In Florida, people are participant-owners in the chain, by exerting their own transformative abilities to learn, apply knowledge and create wealth.”[7]

For Florida’s talent supply chain to be effective and sustainable, it must be[8]:

  1. Seamless, integrated and coordinated (across all stakeholder groups and partners)
  2. Access-oriented, so all residents can participate regardless of personal or financial circumstances
  3. Market-driven, driven by the state’s most pressing economic needs, especially science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) to include medical and life sciences.
  4. Focused on high standards, accountability and incentives
  5. Cost-effective, with investments and resources directed to areas that have the greatest impact on the achievement of priorities

In the near term, there appears to be a paradox: record unemployment levels across the state and parts of the country, and yet a continual concern on the part of employers that they are not able to find the talent they need to compete. This can be attributed to several factors, among them a skill gap in the workforce (and consequent structural unemployment); a “reset” in terms of what companies are willing to pay given the intense competition for jobs; and an over-reliance on technology to perform the functions of talent acquisition.

A recent Workforce Planning Study[9] by Day & Zimmerman’s Yoh workforce planning group identified a number of trends and provided an outlook for recruiting and staffing in the year ahead. In 2012, employers nationwide anticipate their workforce size as either stable (46%) or growing (35%), depending upon the pace of economic recovery, an increase in customer and market demands, and their relative sense of certainty that they can begin to invest in new hires. Yoh pointed out that businesses are likely to underestimate the amount of time they will need to ramp up their workforce recruitment, and that in many cases it will take months to find the desired talent, and a year or more for new hires to be productive in their roles.

In the Yoh study, more than half of the surveyed companies indicated that recruiting and hiring the right people will be the number one workforce planning challenge, and there is only a moderate sense of confidence that businesses have the talent they will need to compete and grow if and when the economy truly recovers. This only makes the need for a more effective talent supply chain more vital, not only for the viability of Metro Orlando’s business community, but also for the talent that resides here. More effectively matching the supply and demand will be a critical component of success, and this will require a different kind of collaboration than what has been done in the past.

A recent example of a “co-opetition” solution was seen, on a smaller level, when Florida Hospital and Orlando Health found themselves using incentives to recruit each other’s healthcare talent, resulting in a dramatic increase in the cost of healthcare specialists (particularly nurses) but no net increase in the available talent supply itself. By working together and forming new training and development programs, Orlando’s major healthcare providers are now actively contributing to the growth of Central Florida’s healthcare talent pool. It is worth exploring whether similar efforts could be made in other sectors (and super-sectors) of the Metro Orlando economy, creating a talent inventory system of sorts that would more effectively identify available talent and help with the redeployment of displaced workers into roles that are in demand and available.

In his presentation of the 2012 findings, Yoh vice president Joel Capparella made the following observation: “To effectively create, manage and deploy the right workforce requires a pragmatic evaluation of the capacity that can be expected from current processes. More importantly, intimate awareness of the elements that dictate response time to unforeseen changes in talent demand enables a greater ability to not only anticipate where increased demand challenges will be most difficult, but to flexibly plot a suggested course for every probable scenario. The result is a significantly increased level of workforce certainty and better alignment of talent against the most critical operational elements needed for meeting objectives.”

This statement holds true, not only for each individual company, but more importantly for all firms that comprise a targeted super-sector in Metro Orlando, seeking critical competencies in STEM and related job fields, such as:

  1. Software engineer [Information]
  2. Web developer [Information]
  3. Systems engineer/architect [Information]
  4. Information technology project manager [Information]
  5. Systems analyst [Information]

Using tools such as Wanted Analytics’ Hiring Scale[10] gives a unique perspective to the supply and demand for these types of jobs in a specific locality, using online job board posting data and other sources to gauge the ratio of job seekers to advertised positions. Additionally, these reporting tools make it possible to find pockets of talent that may be in oversupply, which would help with some of the marketing and recruiting for Metro Orlando as well as in guiding business partners and EDC investors in their targeted recruiting efforts.

Software engineer positions are very difficult to fill in the Metro Orlando area, due to intense competition for the skill set, and the relatively sophisticated level of education and experience needed to attain this professional status. More than 100 companies in the area are actively recruiting for this role, and there are less than 20,000 identified candidates, the majority of whom are already employed. Over the next five to seven years, demand for software engineers are expected to grow by more than 30 percent[11], and competition for qualified talent will only increase as businesses become more reliant on enterprise resource planning, data mining and analytics, e-commerce and computer-mediated business transactions. If Metro Orlando is going to be able to meet this demand, it will require a three-pronged strategy:

  1. Retain the knowledge worker/creative class talent that calls Central Florida home
  2. Invest in the development of future talent through the education system
  3. Recruit companies and individuals in these fields and target sectors to Central Florida

A similar storyline follows nearly all of Metro Orlando’s coveted sectors, including digital media; life sciences (including biotech and healthcare); modeling, simulation and training; optics and photonics; aviation and aerospace; clean technology and sustainable energy, and many more. As Metro Orlando actively competes for talent in these and other areas, so too are its domestic rivals. (such as Boston, Mass., Baltimore, Md., Austin, Tex., and a number of locations in California)

It is important to point out that Metro Orlando is not alone in this quest; key partners across the state are working to secure Florida’s foothold in these key targeted sectors, and there are a number of ongoing initiatives where Metro Orlando EDC already is, or could very easily become, involved in setting the right course and brokering the necessary collaboration for success.

One such initiative is the Six Pillars Caucus System[12], led by the Florida Chamber Foundation and involving more than 100 similarly concerned organizations and 400+ leaders from around the state, including public-private partnerships, corporations, academic institutions, foundations and community partnerships. The six pillars are as follows:

  1. Talent Supply & Education
  2. Innovation & Economic Development
  3. Infrastructure & Growth Leadership
  4. Business Climate & Competitiveness
  5. Civic & Governance Systems
  6. Quality of Life & Quality Places

In a February 2012 meeting[13], the Florida Chamber Foundation president, Dr. Dale Brill, reaffirmed the Chamber’s commitment to tracking these key areas for Florida, and continuing to work on a 20-year strategic plan for the state that encompasses each of these areas. He identified the stakeholders and organizations who have stepped forward to help in the pursuit of these goals, and listed the active members of the respective caucuses, each based on one of the pillars listed above. The Talent Supply & Education caucus emphasized the need to “leverage Florida’s [human and] intellectual capital to transition to a knowledge-based economy,” with supporting initiatives that include alignment of workforce training/retraining to areas of growth, and active leadership of growth in targeted industries and sectors.

A Florida Scorecard[14] has been created to track the state’s progress against a number of goals and key performance indicators (KPIs) with a horizon of 2030 and some very ambitious goals for Florida to tackle. In the area of talent supply and education, these goals include key measures such as:

  1. K-12 Readiness and Attainment
  2. High School Graduation Rates
  3. Bachelors Degree Production Rates
  4. High Wage Jobs and Average Wages

A cursory review of the state’s current workforce investment efforts reveals three principle areas of focus: job training and re-deployment, workforce skills development, and social safety net supports. In a Workforce Florida analysis[15] of these investments, three “circles” were drawn around the different components of workforce investment.

Red Circle: Social Welfare – Transitioning from Poverty to Semi-Skilled Jobs

Florida was an early leader in the welfare-to-work initiatives of the late 1990’s and has continued to build on the social welfare programs that help people stay gainfully employed with nominal financial support while working diligently to prevent regression to the entitlement/welfare system. Services in the “red circle” of the broadly defined workforce development arena are largely driven and stewarded by Florida’s Agency for Workforce Innovation (editor’s note: AWI is now part of the Department of Economic Opportunity), in partnership with the Department of Children and Families, and include such taxpayer funded services as food stamps, cash assistance and case managed support.

From an economic standpoint, the taxpayer investment in these services is highest while the direct economic return on investment to the Florida economy is lowest. It is an essential part of the state’s role in providing a social “safety net” and to actively assist Florida’s citizens in their efforts to improve their skills and employability and to help them to become self-sustaining.

Blue Circle: Workforce Development – Moving into Professional and Skilled Jobs

The next level of investment in Florida’s workforce is focused on the talent development from entry level onward, where Florida begins to build its base of world-class talent by instilling a sense of commitment to lifelong learning and continual skills upgrade to meet the rapidly changing needs of Florida’s economy. This is where the “demand driven” side of the workforce system is most visible, as we begin to see the leveraged private investment (corporate training funds, etc.) that is contributing to training and development in targeted industries and critical jobs, such as health sciences, energy, infrastructure, and technology.

It is in this area where Workforce Florida, through its board of directors, the statewide regional workforce boards, and the public-private partnership, takes the lead on workforce development initiatives and the creation and implementation of programs that contribute to the continual development of talent that meets the current and future needs of the global economy.

Performance is tracked using what is referred to as Common Measures[16], some of which are intuitive and in line with the expressed needs of employers, but others more geared toward a national set of measures that is job seeker and employment services oriented. Here are the Common Measures being used at the state level to measure the effectiveness of workforce programs:

  1. Adult Entered Employment,
  2. Adult Employment Retention,
  3. Adult Average Earnings,
  4. Dislocated Worker Entered Employment,
  5. Dislocated Worker Employment Retention,
  6. Dislocated Worker Average Earnings,
  7. Youth Placement in Employment or Education,
  8. Youth Attainment of a Degree or Certificate,
  9. Youth Literacy and Numeracy Gains.

In this “circle” of investment, the state’s responsibility is to provide a baseline of funding and to develop partnerships with the education and training providers (e.g., community colleges, state colleges and universities, for-profit institutions, etc.) with a clear tie to private industry needs. The return on investment is significant because workers are improving their economic value as well as their productivity through skills upgrade, benefiting the business where they apply their skills and improving upon Florida’s talent base.

Green Circle: Innovation Economy – World-Class Talent and STEM Leadership

At the upper end of the workforce development spectrum, Florida is positioned to demonstrate leadership in the science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines, a critical focus area that is under-represented in the current workforce and will ultimately shape Florida’s standing as a global player in the innovation economy.

The workforce that is being developed in this “green circle” includes executives, senior management, scientists, physicians, world class scholars, experts and entrepreneurs that create wealth through application of knowledge and the development of intellectual property, innovation, and additional job creation through research, commercialization and discovery.

“Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields have become increasingly central to U.S. economic competitiveness and growth. Long-term strategies to maintain and increase living standards and promote opportunity will require coordinated efforts among public, private, and not-for-profit entities to promote innovation and to prepare an adequate supply of qualified workers for employment in STEM fields.”[17]

In coining the term “Creative Class” to describe a large and increasingly important part of the workforce, Richard Florida also set forth a number of criteria to use in evaluating cities, regions and states for their relative competitiveness in attracting and retaining denizens of this socioeconomic class. In a 2006 project commissioned by Enterprise Florida, colleagues of Richard Florida from Carnegie Mellon University conducted a provisional benchmarking report[18] of Florida relative to other competitor states, using the categories of talent, tolerance, technology and territorial assets to rank Florida and identify its strengths and weaknesses. Since 2006, Florida’s economy has been through such a massive upheaval that it would be difficult to calibrate the previous benchmarking report to the current situation.

There are a number of aspects of this benchmarking that would be valuable for Metro Orlando EDC to revisit in light of the most recent five years of Florida’s recession and nascent recovery, particularly:


  • Total University Research& Development (R&D)
  • Milken Tech Pole Index Scores


  • Workforce, % Creative Class
  • Talent Index (BA/BS and Above)
  • Grad/Professional Degree, % Workforce


  • Diversity/Bohemian (Boho) Index Score

Territory Assets

  • Math/Reading Scores – 4th and 8th Grade
  • Post-Secondary Institutions – per 100,000
  • Post-Secondary Students – per 1,000

For the Enterprise Florida project, Florida was benchmarked against California, Georgia, New York, North Carolina, Texas and Virginia. Cities and metro areas in the U.S. that have been successful in attracting and retaining the Creative Class include Chapel Hill, N.C.; Washington, D.C.;  Seattle, Wash.; Portland, Ore.; and Austin, Tex.[19]

As long as we have key attractions like Walt Disney World, Universal Orlando, SeaWorld and the hundreds of other tourist spots that make up a large part of Central Florida’s employment base, we will have a continual need for semi-skilled, technical, service and trade workers who may or may not be “STEM” workers but are no less essential to the viability of our economy. In some ways, having such a robust service and hospitality industry in Central Florida creates opportunities, not only for people who have moved to Florida but may lack the skills to qualify for STEM and professional/white collar jobs, but also for those entry-level employees and students that will soon comprise the bulk of the workforce.

At the same time, Metro Orlando EDC needs to actively invest in the recruitment and retention of businesses and talent that make up the STEM field, driving earnings potential for the workforce and creating the wealth and prosperity (not to mention the tax base) to make the Central Florida community sustainable and attractive for the long term. A recent McKinsey Global Institute study points out:

“Of the nine possible drivers of changes in labor income … two in particular reshaped demand for labor across the workforce. These were skill-biased technological change (technology, for short) and trade, foreign direct investment (DFI) and offshoring. [These drivers] as well as the growing complexity of organizations, fostered rapid growth in demand and compensation for managers and professional services workers with the requisite skills. These occupations employ the bulk of employees comprising the 22 percent of the workforce in the two highest-earning job clusters.”[20]

The occupations that make up these two clusters (“top earners” and “white collar workers”) include engineers, production managers, analysts, health services managers, doctors, nurses, lab technicians and many other STEM roles that are more or less in the sweet spot for Metro Orlando EDC’s future growth plans. Industries include, but are not limited to, professional services, information technology services, health care, finance, insurance and real estate.

The names used for some of the other clusters, such as “speeding treadmill,” “automated away” and “low earners,” give an indication as to the predicted fate of the occupations in these areas, including retail salespeople, security guards, postal workers, bank tellers, couriers and maintenance workers. There is likely to be a need for these workers, but it will decrease each year until many are obsolete.

Taking into account the current state of Metro Orlando, the steps that must be taken to secure a leadership role in the innovation economy, and the aspiration to be the destination of choice for businesses, workers and families who can put imagination to work, here are some areas that are germane to the issue of talent development and where Metro Orlando EDC can take meaningful action.

Focus Area Starting Point Near Term Focus Future 2020+
  1. 1.       Voice of the (Business) Customer


CRITICAL OBJECTIVE: Instill or re-instill a sense of confidence among Central Florida’s business leaders and prospects that this is the place to be, with talent being one of the key selling points.

– Proximity to markets (Latin America, Southeast)

– Education system is underrated

– Need to accurately capture the “Voice of the Customer” in terms of:

– workforce skill gaps

– projected needs

– “flight risk”

– competitive issues

– expectations of EDC, community, education, workforce, etc.


– CHRO forums and best practice sharing

– Communities of practice w/SHRM, ASTD, etc., for sourcing, human capital strategy, workforce optimization, employment issues

– Readiness for BRIC growth, particularly Latin America

– Trend toward gazelles and start-ups, entrepreneurial growth

– Tap into private investment, show ROI

– Workforce of the future, corporation of the future

– High-tech workplace idea exchange

– Increasingly global, virtual and technology dependent

– Legacy thinking

  1. 2.       Talent Supply Chain and Ecosystem


CRITICAL OBJECTIVE: Cultivate more effective relationships and work closely with education, business and workforce partners to continually develop and improve Central Florida’s workforce, and provide verification of achievements from K-20 and beyond.


– Known for hospitality, tourism and service

– Center of excellence for modeling, simulation and training

– Strong base in UCF/Research Park vicinity (Innovation Zone)

– 10+ renowned academic institutions

– Florida continually earns high marks for workforce and business climate

– STEM skill set gap analysis

– Talent inventory system, capacity analysis

– Trend toward contingent workforce and “ROWE” model

-Improved engagement of business leaders at the early stages of learning, e.g. Junior Achievement with 21st century/STEM focus

– Build on career academy successes and increase corporate involvement

– Effective scorecards to track progress and evaluate performance in key areas (model after Michigan’s talent dashboard)[21]


– Corporate skills development center (modeled after CCL)

– Development of corporate co-op programs (modeled after Northeastern University)

– Corporate partnerships with post-secondary institutions and high schools (modeled after California Academy of Mathematics and Sciences – CAMS[22])


Focus Area Starting Point Near Term Focus Future 2020+
  1. 3.       Talent Attraction & Retention


CRITICAL OBJECTIVE: Build Central Florida’s reputation as a great place to live, work and play for Creative Class and their families. Tell the story in the words of the people who have made the move and never regretted it. Play up the quality of life elements, arts, culture, entertainment, nature, etc. and tie it back to a community and a region that is committed to the future.


– Halt the effects of a “brain drain”

– Build on the corporate/university partnership models

– “Creative class” is here now!

– Story telling and social media

– Check the benchmarks based on recent events

– Recalibrate analysis of supply and demand for critical skills

– Talent supply chain partnerships, “triple helix” (business, academia, civic leadership)

– Certify and reinforce Centers of Excellence (Research Park, Medical City, Creative Village)

– Emphasis on advanced degrees in STEM

– Orlando innovations featured in TED and TEDx conferences and other forums, showcasing talent and expertise

– Free agent learning community, lifelong learning and academic network

– Alfred P. Sloan Award criteria/compete as a community (innovative and effective work practices)

  1. 4.       Central Florida’s Places and Spaces


CRITICAL OBJECTIVE: Take advantage of Central Florida’s unique positioning as a global destination of choice to showcase the capabilities, resources and dynamic business environment and quality of life that makes this region such a desirable location for business and residence.


– World class airport

– Accessibility and multimodal transport hub proximity

– Top tourism destination in the world

– One of the world’s best convention centers

– U.S. second-largest university: UCF

– “Livability” factor and quality of life

– Diffuse, sprawl and suburban office parks

– Strategic location for Southeast and Latin America/Caribbean

– One remaining Fortune 500 company: Darden Restaurants


– Broadband and high-speed connectivity

– Collaborative spaces, telepresence centers, workplace of the future labs, co-working, etc.

– Encore careers for people leaving NY, NJ, PA, etc.


– World showcase for innovation, fly-in and learning labs (think München, Germany)

– Quality of life and quality of place for living to age 100+


[1] Daheim, C. “OECD and Mega Trends”

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; Z Punkt GmbH, 14 Dec 2009.

[2] Larsen, G. “Why Megatrends Matter,” Copenhagen Institute for Future Studies, 20 Nov. 2006.

[3] Kaliski, J. “Central Florida and Tampa Bay: Competing Globally as a Super Region,”

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Super Regional Leadership Summit, 7 May 2009.

[4] Cisco, “Equipping Every Learner for the 21st Century,” 2008.

[5] Ibid. Quote from New Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce.

[6] Florida Council of 100. “Closing the Talent Gap.” 14 Jan 2010.

[7] Workforce Florida. “Creating the Strategy for Today’s Needs and Tomorrow’s Talent.” 12 Oct. 2009.

[8] Brogan, F. State University System of Florida, communiqué to Board of Governors. 24 Nov 2009.

[9] Yoh. “2012 Workforce Planning Study.” 2012.

[10] Hiring Scale online workforce analysis – http://www.wantedanalytics.com/hiringscale

[11] Bureau of Labor Statistics. “Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Edition” http://www.bls.gov/oco

[12] Florida Chamber of Commerce Foundation. “Six Pillars Caucus System: A Visioning Program.” http://www.flchamber.com/six-pillars/six-pillars-caucus-system

[13] Florida Chamber of Commerce Foundation. “Six Pillars Caucus – Webinar”

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Hosted by Collaborative Labs at St. Pete College. 22 Feb 2012.

[14] Florida Chamber of Commerce Foundation. “The Florida Scorecard: The Metrics that Help Florida Leaders Secure Florida’s Future.” http://www.thefloridascorecard.com

[15] Urquhart, S. “Workforce and Economic Development Value Chain.”

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6 Aug. 2009.

[16] US Department of Labor. “WIA Performance and Reporting 101: Common Measures.”

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Jul. 2009.

[17] US Department of Labor. “The STEM Workforce Challenge.” Apr 2007.

[18] Stolarick, K. “Florida Benchmark Comparison/Ranking.” [report] Prepared by Catalytix. 20 Jun. 2006.

[19] Florida, R. “The Rise of the Creative Class.” Perseus Book Group, 2002.

[20] McKinsey Global Institute. “Changing the Fortunes of America’s Workforce: A Human Capital Challenge.” Jun. 2009.

[21] Michigan Talent Dashboard. 2012. http://www.michigan.gov/midashboard

[22] Gordon, E. “Winning the Global Talent Showdown.” Berrett-Koehler, 2009. (Fixing the education-to-employment system)